Strategi Koping Guru Kelas Rendah SLB-B Dena Upakara Dalam Menghadapi Stres Yang Muncul Dari Interaksi Antara Guru dan Murid Tunarungu di Sekolah

Florentina Pristi Andika

ABSTRAK.

Interaksi antara guru dan murid tunarungu dalam sebuah SLB adalah topik yang menarik untuk diteliti karena melibatkan orang normal (guru) dan murid yang mempunyai keterbatasan dalam belajar. Guru sebagai orang yang bertanggungjawab mendidik anak berkebutuhan khusus ini mempunyai beban yang cukup bervariasi dan kompleks. Terlebih guru kelas rendah, yang selain mengajar, mereka juga harus “mengubah” kebiasaan kanak-kanak murid menjadi lebih dewasa. Hal ini sering membuat guru berada dalam kondisi multitasking. Oleh karena itu, guru kelas rendah rentan terhadap stress.

Kondisi diatas melatari penelitian yang berfokus pada “Bagaimana strategi koping guru kelas rendah Sekolah Dena Upakara dalam menghadapi stress yang muncul dalam interaksi guru dan murid di sekolah.” Focus utama penelitian tersebut dirinci dalam beberapa subfokus yaitu: (1) darimana stressor muncul; dan (2) bagaimana strategi koping yang dilakukan guru.

Untuk mencapai maksud diatas, dilakukan studi yang melibatkan tiga (3) orang guru kelas rendah yang berasal dari Sekolah Dena Upakara, Wonosobo. Masing-masing subyek adalah unik, oleh karena itu digunakan pendekatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan kualitatif deskriptif. Data penelitian yang dikumpulkan berupa hasil observasi dan wawancara. Teknik documenter digunakan untuk memperoleh informasi tentang data guru di sekolah serta informasi lain yang berkaitan dengan sekolah.

Dari penelitian tersebut, diperoleh temuan berkenaan dengan: (1) asal stressor. Stressor berasal dari murid dan bukan dari murid. Tingkah laku murid, karakteristik anak tunarungu, dan murid pendatang adalah penyebab stress guru yang berasal dari murid. Guru lain, tugas yang kompleks, pelajaran yang sulit dijelaskan, dan masa transisi tugas adalah penyebab stress guru yang berasal bukan dari murid. (2) strategi koping yang dilakukan guru. Guru melakukan strategi koping: mencari pertolongan orang lain, melakukan tindakan langsung, mencari informasi, menerima dengan pasrah, dan melakukan proses intrapsikis.

Terakhir direkomendasikan: (1) kerjasama yang baik antara guru dan forum diskusi yang ada di sekolah tersebut; (2) pelatihan mengenai cara-cara mengajar yang efektif dan efisien untuk murid berkebutuhan khusus; (3) deteksi dini mengenai kondisi dan latar belakang murid yang akan diterima di sekolah; (4) menyelenggarakan program penyegaran atau refreshing bagi guru; sebagai wujud dukungan dan saran terhadap pengembangan dari strategi-strategi koping yang sudah dilakukan.

Kata-kata kunci: strategi koping, stressor, interaksi antara guru dan murid

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ABSTRACT

Interaction between teachers and students in special-school for deaf children was an interesting topic to research because this interaction was consisted of normal people (teachers) and students with special needs (hearing impairment). Teachers who had responsible to teach the students with hearing impairment had various and difficult duties because they teach “special students which have special needs and characteristics”. Teacher needed different skills of teaching rather than teaching in normal schools, especially teachers in first-third class of a special school for the deaf. At that level, teachers did not just teach about lessons but also changed “childish habits” of students into mature habits during the pre-adolescence period. It caused multitasking conditions for teachers and they were susceptible with stress.

The various evidences described above became the background of this research. Therefore, the primary focus of the research was “How first-third class teachers of Dena Upakara did the strategies in order to cope with stressor which happened during interaction in school”. This primary topic consisted of several sub-foci, namely: (1) where did stressors come?; (2) how did teachers do strategies in order to cope with the stressors?

For this purpose, a descriptive study was conducted involving three (3) teachers of first-third class which were located in Dena Upakara Deaf Children School, Wonosobo. Considering the unique characteristics of each teacher, a qualitative approach using descriptive study design was employed. The research data was collected through observation and interviews. Documentary techniques used to access database background information of teachers and school. The information was then categorized after which the conceptual aspects were identified.

The summary of the research findings is as follows: (1) where stressors came from. Stressors came from students and from other thing outside students. Student’s behavior, special characteristic of deaf student in class, and new-comer students was causes from students that occurred stressors to teachers. Other teachers, multitasking condition in class, difficult-learned lessons, and job transitions was causes from other thing outside student that occurred stressors to teachers; (2) how teachers did strategies in order to cope with the stressors. Teachers did searched others assistance, did direct actions, looked for any information were needed, accepted stressors with resignations, and did intra-physics processes themselves in order to cope stressors.

Finally, it was recommended that: (1) cooperation between teachers and discussion forum are defended well; (2) an effective and efficient “good teaching” training are hold to improve teachers abilities of teaching student with special needs; (3) early detection of students background who will enter school to decrease teachers stress because of “new-comers students”; and (4) refreshing time for teachers; as realizations of the coping strategies development have been done, better.

Keywords: Coping strategies, stressors, interactions between teachers and students

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